Portaqua: Come for Water – Ven Por Agua

From Portaqua, a VT KnowledgeWorks company:

“Ven Por Agua” – “Come for Water”- is the simple slogan FEMSA Foundation is using in its effort to provide clean, safe drinking water to populations impacted by natural disasters.  The effort is part of the quality of life focus FEMSA Foundation brings to communities in Central and South America. 

Portaqua - Come for Water - Ven Por Agua Portaqua is proud to be the manufacturer selected for this worthy endeavor.  The vehicle Portaqua manufactured provides the most advanced water purification system capable of supplying safe drinking water from many sources, including brackish water (sea water/fresh mix), surface water that may be contaminated with hydrocarbon and herbicides, and water containing high levels of solids.  The system provides on-board water distribution to provide the water purified by the system to individuals effected by a disaster.  Not only can the vehicle bottle the water in traditional five gallon containers, but also in Portaqua’s unique Bagua™ water storage device. The Bagua™ stores flat like a zip bag but, when filled with water, becomes a transportable, sanitary water bucket.  In addition to safe, clean, water the system provides ice that is bagged on board for distribution to the effected community.

In addition to supplying purified drinking water and ice, this unique vehicle also provides a broad range of support to a community including housing for personnel responding to the relief effort and support for emergency facilities such as hospitals and medical services.  The system includes a complete laboratory area for testing and monitoring water quality.  For support personnel, the system includes an air-conditioned living area, including a bedroom for four persons, kitchen, and bathroom including a shower.  By providing a complete living area, a laboratory and production facilities, the vehicle enables personnel operating the plant to perform their jobs at the highest level.

The on-board fuel storage and generator provide up to five days of uninterrupted service.  The Portaqua system is fully controlled by the AquaFlex™ control logic system developed by Portaqua and provides full web-based connectivity for remote monitoring and support.

The objectives met by this state of the art vehicle are outlined on the FEMSA foundation web page:

  1. Develop a model of a functional vehicle that can be replicated in the future in other zones of Latin America
  2. Seek the support of other organizations that contribute with their knowledge to guarantee the total effectiveness of the vehicle
  3. Support the immediate response of the authorities which concern water and health services to the communities of Mexico that go through a natural disaster

FEMSA Foundation is a foundation established by FEMSA, the largest beverage company in Latin America and the second largest Coca Cola bottler in the world. In January 2010, Heineken International acquired the beer operation of FEMSA in a stock swap resulting in FEMSA being one of the largest shareholders of Heineken, just after the Heineken family. with 20% of the shares. In 2008 FEMSA created the FEMSA Foundation as an instrument of social investment in education, technology and sustainable use of water.

Portaqua, LLC is located at VT KnowledgeWorks in Blacksburg, Virginia, USA with manufacturing in Puebla, Mexico. The company sells packaged purifications systems for small communities in rural underserved regions and highly mobile emergency water purifications plants for use in response to natural disasters.  You're invited to read more about Portaqua on Inside VT KnowledgeWorks.

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VT KnowledgeWorks encourages and enables creative entrepreneurship world-wide, through innovative curriculum, local business resource centers, and a global network of cooperating regions, all focused on three essential contributors to success: clear understanding of fundamental business principles; access to timely, relevant information; and meaningful personal and corporate relationships. It is a self-sustaining not-for-profit subsidiary of the Virginia Tech Foundation, funded through the continuing confidence and enthusiasm of its clients, sponsors and friends, both corporate and individual.  Its world headquarters is in the Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center in Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.

VT KnowledgeWorks sponsors include Attaain, Inc., BB&T, The Branch Group, Handshake 2.0, Harris Office Furniture, Hodges, Jones & Mabry, P.C., Hutchison Law GroupLeClairRyan, New River Valley Intellectual Property Law, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and The Becher Agency (TBA).

Portaqua Assists with Aftermath of Hurricane Alex

VT KnowledgeWorks member company Portaqua responded to the aftermath of Hurricane Alex by delivering purified water to devastated communities in Northern Mexico. 

Hurricane Alex entered Mexico near Brownsville, Texas and caused severe flooding in poor rural communities.  Within 24 hours of the hurricane’s landfall, FEMSA, a leading consumer company in Latin America supplying brands such as Coca-Cola and Powerade to over 215 million consumers, contracted Portaqua to provide emergency water to communities in the rural mountain regions near Monterrey.  Portaqua immediately responded with a trailer water purification unit and Bagua emergency storage pouches.

Portaqua systems and personnel operated from 7 AM to 8 PM to provide water to approximately 10,000 people per day for six weeks.  The water available for treatment came from various sources and contained high levels of suspended solids, agricultural runoff and minerals.  Local emergency response agencies also attempted to use standard emergency water filtration plants but due to these contaminants these systems were unsuccessful.  Only Portaqua’s unique system could treat and purify the water and provide safe drinking water to the communities.

The Portaqua plant operated a total of 46 days without interruption, providing water within one hour of start up.  By using on board generators the system provided drinking water to remote sites, many without power.  The lines of people were long and continuous but Portaqua proved that its model of self contained water purification/bottling plant is the best model to use for disaster response.

Portaqua's trailer water purification unit and Bagua emergency storage pouches provide relief in Hurricane Alex aftermath

Portaqua, LLC is a manufacturer of patent pending lightweight portable drinking water processing systems designed for fast easy setup and operations. With multiple model options including Bottling Plant System (BPS) for local bottling needs, Commercial Plant System (CPS) for local hotels, hospital and communities and Emergency Plant System (EPS) for quick emergency response system, Portaqua is the solution for portable water treatment at any location with a usable water source.

Portaqua is a member company of business acceleration center VT KnowledgeWorks.

For further information, you're invited to read more about Portaqua on Inside VT KnowledgeWorks.

Portaqua – Pure Water for Small Villages


Portaqua, LLC is a manufacturer of patent pending lightweight portable drinking water processing systems designed for fast easy setup and operations. With multiple model options including Bottling Plant System (BPS) for local bottling needs, Commercial Plant System (CPS) for local hotels, hospital and communities and Emergency Plant System (EPS) for quick emergency response system, Portaqua is the solution for portable water treatment at any location with a usable water source.

Portaqua is a member company of business acceleration center VT KnowledgeWorks.

For further information, you're invited to read more about Portaqua on Inside VT KnowledgeWorks.

Portaqua’s Manufacturing Process


Portaqua, LLC is a manufacturer of patent pending lightweight portable drinking water processing systems designed for fast easy setup and operations. With multiple model options including Bottling Plant System (BPS) for local bottling needs, Commercial Plant System (CPS) for local hotels, hospital and communities and Emergency Plant System (EPS) for quick emergency response system, Portaqua is the solution for portable water treatment at any location with a usable water source.

Portaqua is a member company of business acceleration center VT KnowledgeWorks.

For further information, you're invited to read more about Portaqua on Inside VT KnowledgeWorks.

Rafael Gonzalez on the Founding of Portaqua


Portaqua, LLC is a manufacturer of patent pending lightweight portable drinking water processing systems designed for fast easy setup and operations. With multiple model options including Bottling Plant System (BPS) for local bottling needs, Commercial Plant System (CPS) for local hotels, hospital and communities and Emergency Plant System (EPS) for quick emergency response system, Portaqua is the solution for portable water treatment at any location with a usable water source.

Portaqua is a member company of business acceleration center VT KnowledgeWorks.

A comprehensive article, "Portaqua:  Changing Lives at the First Drop," by Z. Kelly Queijo, was published in the Blue Ridge Business Journal on 2/23/09.  Thanks to the Blue Ridge Business Journal, we share the full text of the article with you here.  For photographs,  please view this reprint (.pdf), courtesy of the Blue Ridge Business Journal.

For further information, you're invited to read more about Portaqua on Inside VT KnowledgeWorks.

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VT KnowledgeWorks is a unique growth enhancement program open to entrepreneurs in the New River Valley and beyond.  Acceleration center and incubation facilities are located in the Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center in Blacksburg, Virginia.  Programs for Members are divided into two categories according to the evolutionary status of the member company.  Pre-Launch program components are carefully constructed to help market-worthy ventures organize, formulate strategy, obtain outside investment, and launch in an efficient manner.  Enterprise class members benefit from emphasis on strategic support for ongoing growth, continuing intra-preneurship, and professional development for the corporate leader.

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VT KnowledgeWorks Global Challenge TrophyVT KnowledgeWorks has announced a Global Student Business Concept Challenge, August 29 – September 4, 2010, in Blacksburg and Roanoke, Virginia, USA.  The Challenge celebrates the energy and ingenuity of university students and their important contributions to the future of our global economy.  The name of the winning team, their university name, and their home city will be etched into the base of the VT KnowledgeWorks Global Challenge Trophy as a permanent tribute to their outstanding effort.  The winning team will earn a $25,000 cash prize.

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VT KnowledgeWorks sponsors include Attaain, Inc., BB&T, Handshake 2.0, Harris Office Furniture, Hodges, Jones & Mabry, P.C., Hutchison Law GroupLeClairRyan, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and The Becher Agency (TBA).

Portaqua – Changing Lives at the First Drop

"Portaqua:  Changing Lives at the First Drop," by Z. Kelly Queijo, was published in the Blue Ridge Business Journal on 2/23/09.  Thanks to the Blue Ridge Business Journal, we share the full text of the article with you.  For photographs,  please view this reprint (.pdf), courtesy of the Blue Ridge Business Journal.

Portaqua is a member company of business acceleration center and technology incubator VT KnowledgeWorks.

Portaqua:  Changing Lives at the First Drop
by Z. Kelly Queijo

In his poem, “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,” Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote:
“Water, water, every where,
Nor any drop to drink. ”

These words depict a terrible irony for the sailors on a ship lost at sea, surrounded by water with no way to make it drinkable. Those words, written in 1798, could just as aptly describe today’s global water crisis. According to the World Bank, roughly 1 billion people worldwide do not have access to clean water.

Emphasis is on “access” and “clean.” Water is abundant, covering 70 percent of the earth’s surface, but gathering the resources to purify it has historically been an expensive, labor-intensive task, typically handled by large, commercial water processing plants.

According to Rafael Gonzalez, founder and CEO of Blacksburg-based Portaqua, once the distance from the plant exceeds 150 miles, the cost of transporting water from large-scale central processing plants can easily account for 40 percent of the price of the water.

Gonzalez, along with Mexico-based business partner, Max Junghanns Albers, realized that eliminating the cost of transporting water long distances was the easiest way to reduce costs. Together, they formed Portaqua, LLC and developed a small scale potable water processing plant that could easily and consistently provide clean water to the typically under-served regions of the world including Mexico. The company is looking into expanding into other countries this year.

A simple solution to a worldwide problem

“We wanted to design a system that would cover the water needs of the individual village with 100-200 people, up to a small city with a population of 15-20,000,” says Gonzalez. “We looked at this market because the large companies are focused on large cities and large projects. Those villages and small cities don’t have the expertise to operate complex water plants. So, we designed a simple system that could be managed by someone with a seventh or eighth-grade education. We could provide it to the village and they could have EPA standard water quality and at the same time create jobs.”

Portaqua, LLC was established in 2005 and within three years, Gonzalez and Albers, president of the company, have taken their business from the brainstorming phase to a global corporation with a line of products that can meet a significant portion of the world’s population’s need for clean, safe water. Currently, 53 of Portaqua’s potable water systems are in use throughout Mexico and are 100 percent operational, which Gonzalez says is impressive considering the education level of the plant managers.

According to Gonzalez, at the commercial market level, a typical water company, say a Coke or Pepsi, sells water for $1.20 -$1.80 per five-gallon jug. “We can come in and sell a five-gallon jug, at the community level, for 35-40 cents, which runs only about eight cents a gallon.”

Funding for the villages to purchase these small scale water plants has come from a mixture of public and government funding. In Mexico, government agencies provide resources at the state level. Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the World Bank represent two sources for public funding.

Building a local economy, five people at a time

In all of the plants, the workers are local people. In a village of 100 people, a Portaqua operation will typically mean jobs for about five of its citizens. In the town of Cerro Pietro, in the State of Queretaro, Mexico, the plant manager is female and is known throughout her village as “La Señora de Agua” (The Water Lady). Her notoriety is typical of the success women in small villages are experiencing as water plant managers. Gonzalez says that the state agencies in Mexico report that female managers tend to take better care of plant operations. Because of this, the agencies now seek to hire more women.

First Response

Not long after Portaqua units were in production, officials from Mexico’s state government contacted the company to ask if the water plant could be configured to be completely portable and delivered on the back of a pickup truck for emergency response situations. Gonzalez said “Yes, we can,” and proceeded to modify the design to fit on the back of trailer. The Emergency Plant System (EPS) First Drop, their portable water plant, sells for $70,000-$100,000.

Rather than wait for a disaster to strike, Gonzalez showed the state agencies how they can keep the EPS unit in production as a water bottling plant. By attaching a bottle filling machine to the water plant, they can bottle their own water and in roughly a year’s time, they are able to recoup their cost by eliminating the need to purchase water from a commercial source.

The EPS First Drop system is designed to treat most any type of water. According to Gonzalez, it can even treat the type of water found on the streets of New Orleans, following Katrina.

A Portaqua water plant measures 4-ft: wide by 5-ft: tall, and fits easily into a space about the size of single-car garage. A plant is shipped pre-wired and pre-plumbed. It can usually become operational in about two hours.

Through a partnership with CEMEX, one of the world’s leaders in the cement industry, Portaqua also offers a modular, pre-fabricated cement building that can be assembled on site in as few as five days. It, too, comes plumbed and wired, ready to support the water plant systems.

Based on the number of units sold and population volume, Gonzalez estimates that approximately 230,000 to 300,000 people’s lives have been impacted by access to Portaqua-treated clean water.

Market, magic,mentors and moxie

Gonzalez located his business at Virginia Tech’s Corporate Research Center (VTCRC),as a member of the business incubator, VTKnowledgeWorks. Jim Flowers, director of VT KnowledgeWorks, knew right away Gonzalez represented the qualities necessary to succeed in business.

“The Portaqua enterprise is a prime example of a business concept that met our Four Fundamental Factors test for probable success: Market, magic, mentors and moxie. Rafael Gonzalez and his Portaqua concept arrived at VT KnowledgeWorks with all four factors in abundance,” says Flowers.

Gonzalez knew the market – a growing world population in need of basic human necessities: food, water and energy. He knew his product could meet one of those basic needs and have an impact on the other two for a low cost. Magic came in the simplicity of design, the ease of operation, and the flexibility to connect to other systems for added functionality or distribution.

“The product,” according to Gonzalez, “is a village-scale, portable, mostly automatic water plant that can be operated by almost anybody, using almost any sort of available local water. It is small enough that all the output can be comfortably carried away by average people in portable containers. No piping is necessary, although our system can be attached to a pipe delivery system if it is available.”

Flowers describes a person with “moxie” as one who gets things done. “The moxie of Rafael Gonzalez is readily apparent to anyone. He is a high-energy person, with a constant gleam in his eye, and a previous record of successful entrepreneurship.” Gonzalez also owns and operates Xelera, a specialty chemical company based in Salem.

Building on Portaqua’s successful start, Gonzalez and Albers have expanded their product line to include “Solo,” a ceramic filtration system for home use, and “Baqua,” a patented, three-gallon-per-bag, storage solution targeting hospitals, nursing homes and other industries that need to store water as part of their emergency preparedness system.

From homeowners to hospitals, villages to small cities, it seems the Portaqua team has found a way to work with water, water…everywhere.

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Thanks again to the Blue Ridge Business Journal for "Portaqua:  Changing Lives at the First Drop," by Z. Kelly Queijo, published in the Blue Ridge Business Journal on 2/23/09.  

Portaqua – What the World Needs Now

"If we were to take all of the world’s water and reduce it to one gallon, the volume that would be potable is one tablespoon."

We learned this from Rafael Gonzalez, CEO of Portaqua, Member Company of high-tech incubator VT KnowledgeWorks, who heard it at WATEC Israel 2007.

I thought of Gonzalez when I read the 3/10/08 Associated Press article, AP probe finds drugs in drinking water.  Although a later article in the Roanoke Times reported in the Roanoke Valley Water authority says supply is well-protected, I thought of Dionne Warwick singing, "What the world needs now.."

Looks like what the whole world needs now is Portaqua‘s portable water treatment systems.

I e-mailed Gonzalez my concerns.  He answered:

The recent article regarding medicines contaminating our water systems is starting to make the public aware of how contamination of our drinking water is increasing.  In addition to pharma contamination, another major problem is cosmetic and personal products. Water is starting to show rising levels of cosmetic products such as shower gel, hair products, and perfumes.  From the many plastic products we are using, contamination by perchlorate of our drinking water is increasing. Perchlorate is of concern because it poses a particular risk to infants.  As Dr. John Cairns and I discussed, this will be a major issue for drinking water.

Portaqua is often asked, since we deal with water, "What is the solution?"  First, increased monitoring by our local water plants will be needed if we are going to better understand the problems and begin formulating solutions. We must also begin reviewing our use of medicine and other products.  We may not think about what happens to a medicine or product after we used them.  We need to realize that we are drinking the water that has been purified after someone else’s use. As a presenter during a recent conference indicated, a glass of water someone is drinking in New Orleans has gone through the body of 20 prior people.

At Portaqua, we are constantly thinking of contamination issues that impact potable water. Our systems are designed to handle a broad range of contaminants, including pharma contamination, since we are often utilizing our products in regions where 90% of the wastewater is not treated.

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Portaqua has been featured several times in Inside VT KnowledgeWorks, the weblog for VT KnowledgeWorks.  Here is a compilation of posts about Portaqua.

Experts and Entrepreneurs – Part 4

Previous posts featured the expert Dr. John Cairns, the entrepreneur Rafael Gonzalez of Portaqua, and their exchange.  I have permission from Dr. Cairns to share his e-mail of 2/28/08:

"Those were good responses to the issues I raised.  You did a great service in seeing that they are now available to others!  Well done!" 

From you, Dr. Cairns, that's high praise.  Thank you.

The series:
Experts and Entreprenurs – Part 1
Experts and Entrepreneurs – Part 2
Experts and Entrepreneurs – Part 3
Experts and Entrepreneurs – Part 4

Experts and Entrepreneurs – Part 3

In posts about the expert Dr. John Cairns and the entrepreneur Rafael Gonzalez of Portaqua, I conveyed my reaction to what I consider a model of the high level of synergy that can occur when experts and entrepreneurs have the courage to share ideas and information.

Below is their exchange. John Cairns's review is separated into points and Rafael Gonzalez, CEO of Portaqua, responds.

Cairns:
Less than 1% of the world's fresh water (~ 0.007% of all water on earth) is accessible for direct human use.

Gonzalez:
In researching water issues, we found that in many countries, the surface water that used to be potable is now contaminated. Countries like Mexico have 80% of its potable water contaminated. Various studies by such agencies as the
World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF, and others found the impact of water contamination in small communities was greater due to lack of proper purification systems.  Such is the case for tube wells in India and Pakistan. As reported by ABC News, the WHO has called the issue “the largest mass poisoning of a population in history."

For this reason, we decided to design a water purification plant that would address a broader purification spectrum rather than just a basic water filtration system that would not address contaminants such as arsenic and fluoride. We focused on small villages since my business partner’s family operated 21 bottling plants in Mexico, which were purchased by PepsiCO in 2001. He found that with water bottling, once a community was 200 miles or further, 40% of the water cost was distribution. In many villages, the locals are spending 25 to 35% of daily income to obtain water of questionable quality.

The idea was to design a package water plant that would purify water and bottle water for distribution. This would eliminate the need for complex piping distribution and create a revenue stream to maintain the plant and create micro-jobs for the village. A typical plant creates approximately 5 to 7 jobs.

Our systems are pre-plumbed and pre-wired for fast set-up and installation. By using “Value Innovation” technology we were able to simplify the process and produce a plant that weighs less than 800 pounds.We can install a water purification/bottling plant in under 24 hours.

Cairns:
It is not clear whether the Portaqua portable water treatment system will remove such things as endocrine disrupters, which may have deleterious effects in very low concentrations (e.g. parts per trillion or quadrillion).

Gonzalez:
We wanted to insure the system would purify as many contaminants as possible, including metals, fluoride, arsenic, and endocrine disrupters. For the organics and pharma products, we are using a combination of technologies that are presently recommended as best practice by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), since all data indicates this is the best available treatment.

For metals and salts, we use reverse osmosis technology with proprietary logic that reduces the energy requirements for the purification process. This allows us to treat a broad range of contaminants. Our typical system produces approximately 50 five-gallon bottles per hour and we are able to have a non-technical person in a village purifying and bottling water in fewer than four hours.

Cairns:
Neither individual in the promotional video taken in a Mexican garage was wearing plastic gloves (common in food and beverage handling) or clean laboratory coats.

Gonzalez:
This video was from our first plant which we used for patent application and developing the concept. In newer videos and all existing plants we train the personnel in proper sanitation and hygiene and staff members wear gloves, lab coats, head covers, and masks.

Cairns:
The portable water treatment system runs on electricity, which may not always be available.

Gonzalez:
We are using new reverse osmosis (RO) technology with proprietary programming that allows for reduced energy usage. Our system, if operated using a generator, will use approximately 1 gallon of gasoline per 11 hours of operation. With input from Dr. Tamim Younos of the Virginia Water Resources Research Center at Virginia Tech,
we hope to utilize wind or solar due to the low energy requirements and develop a system that uses “rain water harvesting." According to Dr. Younos, there is a major shift to a pipe-less society and a decentralized system. This new model will better deliver services to communities worldwide. Our Portaqua system was designed with this decentralized design for maximum value and efficiency.

Cairns:
The promotional video demonstrates removal of particulate matter, but has no persuasive evidence for removal of Giardia cysts or other water borne diseases.

Gonzalez:
For removal of water borne diseases, we are using a multiple barrier from
MIOX Corporation. Mixed oxidants usually are several orders of magnitude more effective in microbial contaminant inactivation than conventional chlorine, achieving up to 2 logs higher inactivation of even extremely resistant organisms.

Cairns:
The processing time appears to be short (the rack of bottles filled quickly), which indicates short residence time in the treatment system.

Gonzalez:
Please see the above discussion on storage/filling.

Cairns:
There was no information on how often the treatment system was cleaned or how effective the cleaning process was.

Gonzalez:
The typical plant is operated approximately 10 to 12 hours. We instruct the personnel on cleaning and this is done daily. We use best practice methods established by the International Bottled Water Association.

Cairns:
It is always cheaper and more effective to treat water contaminants at the source; however, this system might work in emergencies (e.g. Katrina), but more evidence is needed on the system's performance.

Gonzalez:
We have designed our plants to be transportable and since developing the original plants, we have designed an emergency water purification system mounted on a trailer that provides water purification locally at the emergency site. We have eliminated the need to transport bottled water via helicopters at a cost to the
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of as much as $36 per gallon. By combining our purification plant with our Bagua water storage solution [written about previously here], we deliver a new paradigm of water delivery. We recently demonstrated it to the Mexican military and are getting many requests for field demonstrations.

Currently we have 40 plants in operation and will be expanding to the Central and South American markets in the coming months.

It is always helpful to be able to present our technology to knowledgeable industry experts since this can only make us better in our designs. As we look to integrate Portaqua's technology with Virginia Tech's research in areas such as in water harvesting, wind and/or sun energy, and the reduction of weight with composite material, we feel the impact of VT will be major in our efforts to improve water quality worldwide.

Regards,
Rafael

The series:
Experts and Entreprenurs – Part 1
Experts and Entrepreneurs – Part 2
Experts and Entrepreneurs – Part 3
Experts and Entrepreneurs – Part 4

Experts and Entrepreneurs – Part 2

For entrepreneurs in the world of Web 2.0, an online product review is like receiving an invitation to a press conference with the mayor. Entrepreneurs enter a visible, one-to-many conversation about their products or services. They have an opportunity to elaborate upon their creation's features at the same time as demonstrating the caliber of their personal character by responding to challenges.

In a previous post, I described asking for, and receiving, a review of Portaqua's portable water treatment systems from water expert Dr. John Cairns.

Rafael Gonzalez, CEO of Portaqua, exemplified the highest standards of entrepreneurship in his reply:

  • deep knowledge of his product
  • broad knowledge of the context in which his product would function
  • specific knowledge of the niche market his product would serve
  • personal integrity as modeled by thoughtful, judicious, thorough, candid replies to questions

    I have witnessed uncertain experts and uncertain entrepreneurs dodge questions, argue positions, and resort to personal attacks to camouflage their lack of knowledge of the truth of what they are doing and why.

    Not so with Cairns and Gonzalez. What I admired most about the expert and the entrepreneur was their upholding truth as the ultimate standard.

    Their exchange follows in the next post, Part 3.

    The series:

    Experts and Entreprenurs – Part 1
    Experts and Entrepreneurs – Part 2
    Experts and Entrepreneurs – Part 3
    Experts and Entrepreneurs – Part 4